Haplogroup E1b1b1c1* (M34) and its subclade E1b1b1c1a* (M84) were detected among the Arabs in the Arabian Peninsula. A possible reason for migration of the founder of cluster E1b1b1c1a-E from the Levant to the Arabian Peninsula could be the Crusades.
The highest diversity of subclades of haplogroup E1b1b1c1 (M34) is observed in the Levant and Anatolia, therefore its ancestral home is often placed in the Eastern Mediterranean [1-3]. In addition, haplogroup E1b1b1c1* (M34) and its subclade E1b1b1c1a* (M84) were detected among the Arabs in the Arabian Peninsula [4, 5], where they form specific clusters — E1b1b1c1-B  and E1b1b1c1a-E . Knowing the age of the clusters and their area of distribution, we can find out the history of clusters’ origin and resettlement of their carriers. In this paper we will try to find out the history of E1b1b1c1 and E1b1b1c1a subclades in the Arabian Peninsula on the example of these clusters.
Arabian clusters: when and why?
To find out the origin of the clusters, let us define their ages with the probability of 95% according to . At the time of writing the paper (July 2010) cluster E1b1b1c1-B has had only two 67-marker haplotypes (N=2). Obviously, due to such a small number of haplotypes, their TMRCA (time to most recent ancestor) is “too young” and is 350±320 years, and gives us no reason to draw any definite conclusion about the history of its origin.
The sample of cluster E1b1b1c1a*-E consists of five 67-marker haplotypes. This cluster’s TMRCA is 1090±510 years.
Despite the fact that, due to different size of samples, the ages of these clusters’ founders are different, it should examine the entire period of their confidence intervals, which are intersected.
It is possible that both clusters have arisen in about the same medieval era and are linked to the migration of their founders from the Levant to the Arabian Peninsula according to some important event. What could cause this migration?
We think that a possible cause of the medieval migrations from the Levant could be the Crusades — a series of Western invasions to oust the Muslims from Palestine, which lasted almost two hundred years (1096-1272 years).
The first crusade ended with the capture of Jerusalem and the massacre of Muslims . Apparently, these invasions, and, as a result of them, looting and killings, forced part of the Muslims to seek refuge from persecution of the Crusaders closer to Mecca. This, in our view, could cause to arise at least one cluster of Arabia — E1b1b1c1a-E.
1) Carriers of subclades E1b1b1c1* (M34) and E1b1b1c1a (M84) identified in the Arabian Peninsula, where they form clusters E1b1b1c1-B and E1b1b1c1a-E.
2) The TMRCA of cluster E1b1b1c1*-B is 350±320 years ago, the TMRCA of cluster E1b1b1c1a*-E is 1090±510 years ago. They possibly arose at one time.
3) A possible reason for migration of the founder of cluster E1b1b1c1a-E from the Levant to the Arabian Peninsula could be the Crusades.
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4. Haplozone E3b, Arabian E-Y-DNA Project, Arab DNA Project
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6. E1b1b1c1*-B cluster
7. E1b1b1c1a*-E cluster
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